Violence & Trauma

The influence of substance use on depressive symptoms among young adult black men: The sensitizing effect of early adversity: Depressive Symptoms and Substance Use in Black Men

Background and objectives: Depressive symptoms have been identified as an important consequence of substance use. Both heavy drinking and marijuana use have acute and short-term effects on systems that regulate emotion, increasing the potential for substance use to induce problems with negative affect and irritability. We investigated the effects of alcohol and marijuana use on depressive symptoms among a sample of young Black men. We also tested the stress sensitization hypothesis that exposure to adverse childhood experiences would amplify the ...

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Pathways linking marijuana use to substance use problems among emerging adults: A prospective analysis of young Black men

Marijuana use rates peak during emerging adulthood (ages 18 to 25years). Although marijuana use quantity reliably predicts substance-related problems, considerable individual differences characterize this association. The aims of the present study were to examine the influence of community disadvantage in amplifying the effects of marijuana use on downstream substance use problems, as well as the mediating influence of social disengagement in the path linking marijuana use frequency to related problems.

 

Pathways linking marijuana use to substance use problems among emerging ...

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Snapshot: Civil Citations

When youth get in trouble with the law, it’s important to take a level-headed approach that helps them become contributing members of society while ensuring community safety. Unfortunately, our current juvenile justice system is like an exceptionally difficult maze, with too many paths in and too few ways out. But just entering the maze can have devastating consequences for society at large and for the young people themselves. As stated in a report by the National Institute of Justice and ...

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Mindful Parenting and Parents’ Emotion Expression: Effects on Adolescent Risk Behaviors

Mindful parenting is associated with greater adjustment and fewer behavior problems in children and adolescents. However, the mechanisms by which mindful parenting functions to mitigate risk in adolescence are not well understood. This study investigated parent emotional expression as a potential mechanism in the relationship between low mindful parenting and adolescent risk behaviors. A sample of 157 12–14-year-old adolescents (49 % female) and their primary caregivers (99 % female) participated in an emotionally arousing conflict interaction. Parents reported on their ...

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Short-Term Effects on Family Communication and Adolescent Conduct Problems: Familias Unidas in Ecuador

Familias Unidas, a Hispanic/Latino-specific, parent-centered intervention, found to be efficacious in improving family functioning and reducing externalizing behaviors among youth in the USA, was recently adapted and tested for use in Ecuador. This study examined the short-term efficacy of Familias Unidas in Ecuador on parent-adolescent communication, parental monitoring of peers, and youth conduct problems. Two hundred thirty-nine youths (ages 12–14 years) and their primary care givers were randomized to either Familias Unidas or Community Practice and assessed pre- and post-intervention. ...

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Publications and Reports: ACHA-NCHA II: Spring 2016

The ACHA-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II) is a national research survey organized by the American College Health Association (ACHA) to assist college health service providers, health educators, counselors, and administrators in collecting data about their students’ habits, behaviors, and perceptions on the most prevalent health topics. ACHA initiated the original ACHA-NCHA in 2000 and the instrument was used nation wide through the spring 2008 data collection period. The ACHA-NCHA now provides the largest known comprehensive data set on ...

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Linking Family-of-Origin Experiences and Perpetration of Sexual Coercion: College Males’ Sense of Entitlement

Sexual coercion on college campuses has become of major concern in recent decades. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have called for greater attention to this topic in order to reduce the sexual violence on college campuses. Recent research has examined the impact of family-of-origin experiences on the perpetration of sexual coercion. The current study examines the association between family-of-origin experiences, such as warmth and hostility between parents, inconsistent parenting, and overparenting during childhood, and the perpetration of sexual ...

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Developmental Growth Trajectories of Self-Esteem in Adolescence: Associations with Child Neglect and Drug Use and Abuse in Young Adulthood

Abstract
Neglectful rearing is linked with young adults’ substance use and abuse, though the developmental mechanisms that underlie this association are unclear. The present study examines links between self-esteem growth during adolescence, childhood supervisory versus physical neglect severity, and substance use and abuse in young adulthood. A sample of youth was obtained from the Add Health study (N = 8738; 55.4 %-Female; 20 ...
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The Adolescent Brain

Abstract

Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by suboptimal decisions and actions that are associated with an increased incidence of unintentional injuries, violence, substance abuse, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases. Traditional neurobiological and cognitive explanations for adolescent behavior have failed to account for the nonlinear changes in behavior observed during adolescence, relative to both childhood and adulthood. This review provides a biologically plausible model of the neural mechanisms underlying these nonlinear changes in ...

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Black-White Disparity in Young Adults’ Disease Risk: An Investigation of Variation in the Vulnerability of Black Young Adults to Early and Later Adversity

Socioeconomic adversity in early years and young adulthood are risk factors for poor health in young adulthood. Population differences in exposure to stressful socioeconomic conditions partly explain the higher prevalence of disease among black young adults. Another plausible mechanism is that blacks are differentially vulnerable to socioeconomic adversity (differential vulnerability hypothesis), which has not been adequately investigated in previous research. The present study investigated variation in the vulnerability of black young adults leading to cardiometabolic (CM) disease risk.

 

Black-White Disparity ...

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Decreasing Substance use Risk among African American Youth: Parent-based Mechanisms of Change

African American couples (N = 139; 67.7 % married; with children between the ages of 9 and 14) were randomly assigned to (a) a culturally sensitive, couple- and parenting-focused program designed to prevent stress-spillover (n = 70) or (b) an information-only control condition in which couples received self-help materials (n = 69). Eight months after baseline, youth whose parents participated in the program, compared with control youth, reported increased parental monitoring, positive racial socialization, and positive self-concept, as well as ...

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Positive Youth Development and Resilience: Growth Patterns of Social Skills among Youth Investigated for Maltreatment

Children living in adverse rearing environments experience severe stress, impairing development across multiple domains of psychosocial functioning including social competencies (Kim & Cicchetti, 2010). Despite developmental challenges, not all abused youth pursue maladaptive developmental trajectories (Masten, 2001). Many exhibit resilience, a multi-domain developmental process eventuating in positive adaptation within the context of adversity (Cicchetti, 2010). Investigating the process in which risk and protective factors interact to foster youth resilience will bridge basic and translational developmental science. The present study utilized a positive youth development (PYD) framework to study social skill trajectories and associated risk and protective factors from multiple socio-ecological systems among a nationally representative youth sample reported to Child Protective Services (CPS) for maltreatment. Integrated person-and variable-centered approaches were utilized to examine resilience processes via delineation of latent social skills growth trajectories,informing PYD-oriented services on positive youth adjustment (Lerner, 2004; Smith, Faulk, & Sizer, 2013).
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