School Personnel

Supporting Public Health Priorities: Recommendations for Physical Education and Physical Activity Promotion in Schools

Physical activity (PA) provides numerous physiological and psychosocial benefits. However, lifestyle changes, including reduced PA opportunities in multiple settings, have resulted in an escalation of overweight and obesity and related health problems. Poor physical and mental health, including metabolic and cardiovascular problems is seen in progressively younger ages, and the systematic decline in school PA has contributed to this trend. Of note, the crowded school curriculum with an intense focus on academic achievement, lack of school leadership support, funding and ...

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Inclusion for Young Children With Disabilities

Issues affecting inclusion of young children with disabilities over the last 25 years are discussed. A brief history of early childhood inclusion is followed by a discussion of definition, terminology, and models for inclusive services. A summary of synthesis points derived from the research literature focuses on critical outcomes for children with disabilities, the role of specialized instruction, collaboration among professionals, necessary organizational supports, and benefits for typically developing children. Two recent directions affecting the implementation of inclusion, assessment of ...

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Inclusion of Children with Disabilities: Teachers’ Attitudes and Requirements for Environmental Accommodations

Teachers in general education are expected to cope with students with diverse needs. They might not always be ready or sufficiently supported to meet these challenges. The current study aims at identifying child, teacher and environmental barriers to inclusion. Specifically it addresses the importance of preschool teachers’ attitudes as the human environment factor that may facilitate inclusion of children with disability, and teachers’ major concerns about environmental accommodations that inclusion implies. The study assessed how teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion of ...

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Evidence for General and Domain-Specific Elements of Teacher–Child Interactions: Associations With Preschool Children’s Development

This study evaluates a model for considering domain-general and domain-specific associations between teacher–child interactions and children’s development, using a bifactor analytic strategy. Among a sample of 325 early childhood classrooms there was evidence for both general elements of teacher–child interaction (responsive teaching) and domain-specific elements related to positive management and routines and cognitive facilitation. Among a diverse population of 4-year-old children (= 1,407) responsive teaching was modestly associated with development across social and cognitive domains, whereas positive management and routines was ...

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Less-structured time in children’s daily lives predicts self-directed executive functioning

Executive functions (EFs) in childhood predict important life outcomes. Thus, there is great interest in attempts to improve EFs early in life. Many interventions are led by trained adults, including structured training activities in the lab, and less-structured activities implemented in schools. Such programs have yielded gains in children’s externally-driven executive functioning, where they are instructed on what goal-directed actions to carry out and when. However, it is less clear how children’s experiences relate to their development of self-directed executive ...

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Evidence-based Kernels: Fundamental Units of Behavioral Influence

This paper describes evidence-based kernels, fundamental units of behavioral influence that appear to underlie effective prevention and treatment for children, adults, and families. A kernel is a behavior–influence procedure shown through experimental analysis to affect a specific behavior and that is indivisible in the sense that removing any of its components would render it inert. Existing evidence shows that a variety of kernels can influence behavior in context, and some evidence suggests that frequent use or sufficient use of some ...

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A case study of gendered play in preschools: how early childhood educators’ perceptions of gender influence children’s play

This research aimed to explore children’s play in relation to gender stereotypes and beliefs and practices of educators in preschool settings. A feminist poststructuralist approach framed the design of the research and data were collected in two settings through predetermined categories of play during periods of spontaneous free play. The question asked in this research was, do early childhood educators’ perceptions of gender influence children’s play? Findings suggest that there were differences between these two settings and these differences are ...

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Two Strikes Race and the Disciplining of Young Students

There are large racial disparities in school discipline in the United States, which, for Black students, not only contribute to school failure but also can lay a path toward incarceration. Although the disparities have been well documented, the psychological mechanisms underlying them are unclear. In two experiments, we tested the hypothesis that such disparities are, in part, driven by racial stereotypes that can lead teachers to escalate their negative responses to Black students over the course of multiple interpersonal (e.g., ...

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Supporting Autonomy in the Classroom: Ways Teachers Encourage Student Decision Making and Ownership

In addition to classroom activities, teachers provide personal and instructional supports meant to facilitate the developing sense of student autonomy. In this article, we offer a way of thinking about autonomy-supportive practices that suggests that such practices can be distinguished at a featural level and that different practices may in fact have different outcomes in terms of student classroom behavior. Specifically, we propose that autonomy support can be manifested in the classroom in at least 3 distinct ways: organizational autonomy ...

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International research on the effectiveness of widening participation

HEFCE commissioned CFE and Edge Hill University to produce a report on effective approaches to widening participation in six case study countries: the Netherlands, the US, Australia, South Africa, Norway and Ireland. The review was commissioned to inform the national strategy for access and student success which HEFCE and the Office for Fair Access are jointly developing.

The aims of the research are:

  • to critically examine the evidence for the impact and effectiveness of activity and policies specifically focused on widening participation and ...
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