Poverty

Effect of a Text Messaging Intervention on Influenza Vaccination in an Urban, Low-Income Pediatric and Adolescent Population

Influenza infection results in substantial costs, morbidity, and mortality. Vaccination against influenza is particularly important in children and adolescents who are a significant source of transmission to other high-risk populations, yet pediatric and adolescent vaccine coverage remains low. Traditional vaccine reminders have had a limited effect on low-income populations; however, text messaging is a novel, scalable approach to promote influenza vaccination.

Among children and adolescents in a low-income, urban population, a text messaging intervention compared with usual care was associated with ...

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Worldwide application of prevention science in adolescent health

The burden of morbidity and mortality from non-communicable disease has risen worldwide and is accelerating in low-income and middle-income countries, whereas the burden from infectious diseases has declined. Since this transition, the prevention of non-communicable disease as well as communicable disease causes of adolescent mortality has risen in importance. Problem behaviours that increase the short-term or long-term likelihood of morbidity and mortality, including alcohol, tobacco, and other drug misuse, mental health problems, unsafe sex, risky and unsafe driving, and violence ...

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Text4Health: Impact of Text Message Reminder–Recalls for Pediatric and Adolescent Immunizations

Objectives. We conducted 2 studies to determine the impact of text message immunization reminder–recalls in an urban, low-income population.

Methods. In 1 study, text message immunization reminders were sent to a random sample of parents (n = 195) whose children aged 11 to 18 years needed either or both meningococcal (MCV4) and tetanus–diphtheria–acellular pertussis (Tdap) immunizations. We compared receipt of MCV4 or Tdap at 4, 12, and 24 weeks with age- and gender-matched controls. In the other study, we compared attendance at a ...

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Children With Disabilities in the Context of Disaster: A Social Vulnerability Perspective

An estimated 200 million children worldwide experience various forms of disability. This critical review extrapolates from existing literature in 2 distinct areas of scholarship: one on individuals with disabilities in disaster, and the other on children in disaster. The extant literature suggests that various factors may contribute to the physical, psychological, and educational vulnerability of children with disabilities in disaster, including higher poverty rates, elevated risk exposure, greater vulnerability to traumatic loss or separation from caregivers, more strain on parents, ...

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Pathways linking marijuana use to substance use problems among emerging adults: A prospective analysis of young Black men

Marijuana use rates peak during emerging adulthood (ages 18 to 25years). Although marijuana use quantity reliably predicts substance-related problems, considerable individual differences characterize this association. The aims of the present study were to examine the influence of community disadvantage in amplifying the effects of marijuana use on downstream substance use problems, as well as the mediating influence of social disengagement in the path linking marijuana use frequency to related problems.

 

Pathways linking marijuana use to substance use problems among emerging ...

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Being Committed: Conceptualizations of Romantic Relationship Commitment Among Low-Income African American Adolescents

Few studies have examined adolescents’ understanding of romantic relationship commitment, particularly among African American youth. Using three waves of semistructured interviews, the present descriptive study addresses this topic by exploring the ways in which 20 African American adolescents (age range 13-19 years) from low-income backgrounds conceptualize and describe commitment in romantic relationships. Qualitative analyses revealed three main themes related to defining commitment, indicating that which commitment provides, and describing the nature of commitment in different relationship contexts. Findings inform psychological ...

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Home-Based Early Intervention and the Influence of Family Resources on Cognitive Development

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether early developmental intervention (EDI) can positively affect the trajectories of cognitive development among children from low-resource families.

METHODS: Longitudinal analyses were conducted of data from 293 children in the Brain Research to Ameliorate Impaired Neurodevelopment Home-based Intervention Trial, a randomized controlled trial of a home-based EDI program, to examine trajectories of Bayley Scales of Infant Development—Second Edition Mental Development Index (MDI) scores from 12 to 36 months of age among young children from high- and low-resource families ...

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Children’s Gender-Typed Activity Choices Across Preschool Social Contexts

Variability in children’s gender-typed activity preferences was examined across several preschool social contexts–solitary play, interactions with female peers, male peers, and both, and interactions with teachers. Participants were preschool children (N = 264; 49 % girls, M age = 52 months, range 37–60) attending Head Start classes in the Southwest United States. Seventy-three percent were Mexican/Mexican-American, and 82 % of families earned less than $30,000 per year. Children’s preferences for gender-typed activities varied as a function of their own gender and the identity ...

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The Racial Generation Gap and the Future for Our Children

Children are not faring well in America. Over the course of the two-year presidential campaign cycle that is well underway, eight million children will be born in this country. If our nation’s elected leaders do nothing, more than 75,000 of those children born in this country below the age of 2 will be abused or neglected, over 500,000 will be uninsured, and nearly two million will live in poverty — a disadvantage that research has shown to have lifelong negative ...

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Building a STEM Pathway: Xavier University of Louisiana’s Summer Science Academy

In Louisia, Xavier University provides a STEM summer Academy as a bridge program for persons of color between middle and high school. Underrepresented groups, such as Hispanics and Blacks, earn less than 15% of STEM bachelor’s degree, despite a large interest in these programs and degrees. The discrepancies in income levels may constitute this difference, causing an achievement gap. This program, as well as this report, offer state suggestions to narrow this gap.

 

 

Building a STEM Pathway: Xavier University of Louisiana’s ...

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Arts and Cognition Monograph: Effects of Music Instruction

Our research examined the relationship between cognitive systems that underlie music and mathematical abilities. Specifically, we undertook studies to determine whether, when children or adolescents produce music—comparing and operating on melodies, harmonies, and rhythms—they activate brain systems that also enable them to compare and operate on representations of number and geometry.

Arts and Cognition Monograph: Effects of Music Instruction

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Study: How students of different backgrounds use strategies to strengthen college applications

Years of research show that students from families of higher socioeconomic status are more likely to attend college—particularly more selective institutions—thanks to a variety of factors, including academic preparation, attendance at higher performing schools, and other social, cultural, and financial resources available to families with more means.

In addition to their traditional coursework, students often try to make their college applications more competitive through what the researchers call “college enhancement strategies,” including Advanced Placement (AP) exams, SAT preparation courses or materials, ...

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