Family Stressors

Genetic Moderation of Transactional Relations Between Parenting Practices and Child Self-Regulation

The present study addressed the ways in which parent and child dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) genotypes jointly moderate the transactional relations between parenting practices and child self-regulation. African American children ( = 309) and their parents provided longitudinal data spanning child ages 11 to 15 years and a saliva sample from which variation at DRD4 was genotyped. Based on the differential susceptibility perspective, this study examined moderation effects of DRD4 status on (a) the extent to which parenting practices affect ...

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Developmental Growth Trajectories of Self-Esteem in Adolescence: Associations with Child Neglect and Drug Use and Abuse in Young Adulthood

Abstract
Neglectful rearing is linked with young adults’ substance use and abuse, though the developmental mechanisms that underlie this association are unclear. The present study examines links between self-esteem growth during adolescence, childhood supervisory versus physical neglect severity, and substance use and abuse in young adulthood. A sample of youth was obtained from the Add Health study (N = 8738; 55.4 %-Female; 20 ...
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The Adolescent Brain

Abstract

Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by suboptimal decisions and actions that are associated with an increased incidence of unintentional injuries, violence, substance abuse, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases. Traditional neurobiological and cognitive explanations for adolescent behavior have failed to account for the nonlinear changes in behavior observed during adolescence, relative to both childhood and adulthood. This review provides a biologically plausible model of the neural mechanisms underlying these nonlinear changes in ...

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Black-White Disparity in Young Adults’ Disease Risk: An Investigation of Variation in the Vulnerability of Black Young Adults to Early and Later Adversity

Socioeconomic adversity in early years and young adulthood are risk factors for poor health in young adulthood. Population differences in exposure to stressful socioeconomic conditions partly explain the higher prevalence of disease among black young adults. Another plausible mechanism is that blacks are differentially vulnerable to socioeconomic adversity (differential vulnerability hypothesis), which has not been adequately investigated in previous research. The present study investigated variation in the vulnerability of black young adults leading to cardiometabolic (CM) disease risk.

 

Black-White Disparity ...

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Being Committed: Conceptualizations of Romantic Relationship Commitment Among Low-Income African American Adolescents

Few studies have examined adolescents’ understanding of romantic relationship commitment, particularly among African American youth. Using three waves of semistructured interviews, the present descriptive study addresses this topic by exploring the ways in which 20 African American adolescents (age range 13-19 years) from low-income backgrounds conceptualize and describe commitment in romantic relationships. Qualitative analyses revealed three main themes related to defining commitment, indicating that which commitment provides, and describing the nature of commitment in different relationship contexts. Findings inform psychological ...

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Buffering effect of positive parent–child relationships on adolescent risk taking: A longitudinal neuroimaging investigation

Adolescence is marked by a steep increase in risk-taking behavior. The serious consequences of such heightened risk taking raise the importance of identifying protective factors. Despite its dynamic change during adolescence, family relationships remain a key source of influence for teenagers. Using a longitudinal fMRI approach, we scanned 23 adolescents twice across a 1.5-year period to examine how changes in parent–child relationships contribute to changes in adolescent risk taking over time via changes in adolescents’ neural reactivity to rewards. Results ...

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Exploring parental divorce among emerging adult women: The roles of support networks and family relationships.

What is the experience of parental divorce like when it takes place during emerging adulthood? A phenomenological study examined how parental divorce during emerging adulthood gives meaning to emerging adults’ experiences, specifically with regards to support networks and familial relationships. Fifteen females between the ages of 18 and 25 (M = 21.5) whose parents divorced after age 18 were interviewed. Three themes of meaning emerged from the data: emotional consequences of loss and contradictory coping, involvement in the divorce process, ...

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Social stressors, coping behaviors, and depressive symptoms: A latent profile analysis of adolescents in military families

We investigated the relationship between context-specific social stressors, coping behaviors, and depressive symptoms among adolescents in active duty military families across seven installations (three of which were in Europe) (N = 1036) using a person-centered approach and a stress process theoretical framework. Results of the exploratory latent profile analysis revealed four distinct coping profiles: Disengaged Copers, Troubled Copers, Humor-intensive Copers, and Active Copers. Multinomial logistic regressions found no relationship between military-related stressors (parental separation, frequent relocations, and parental rank) and ...

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How Family Structures and Processes Interrelate: The Case of Adolescent Mental Health and Academic Success in Military Families

The transitional nature of military life positions the family to serve as the primary and most stable influence for adolescents in military families. These military-related transitions and stressors may also put youth at risk for depression and academic challenges. This study examines the relative impact of family structure (family composition at a given time point) and family processes (interpersonal interactions developed over time) on important adolescent outcomes (depressive symptoms and academic performance) for a sample of military youth (N = ...

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Decreasing Substance use Risk among African American Youth: Parent-based Mechanisms of Change

African American couples (N = 139; 67.7 % married; with children between the ages of 9 and 14) were randomly assigned to (a) a culturally sensitive, couple- and parenting-focused program designed to prevent stress-spillover (n = 70) or (b) an information-only control condition in which couples received self-help materials (n = 69). Eight months after baseline, youth whose parents participated in the program, compared with control youth, reported increased parental monitoring, positive racial socialization, and positive self-concept, as well as ...

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Parental support buffers the association of depressive symptoms with cortisol and C-reactive protein during adolescence

Social experiences can affect the relationship between depression and physical health. The current study examined how social support from parents and friends may moderate the association of depressive symptoms with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and C-reactive protein among adolescents (N = 316, Mage = 16.40, SD = .74; 57% female) from diverse ethnic backgrounds (23.1% Asian, 29.1% European, 41.8% Latino, and 6.0% other backgrounds). Results indicated that parent support, but not friend support, moderated the link between depressive symptoms and both total daily cortisol output (a ...

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Helicopter Parenting and Emerging Adult Self-Efficacy: Implications for Mental and Physical Health

Abstract
Helicopter parenting has become an increasing concern among practitioners, college administrators, and professors. Further, some research has indicated that this form of parenting may have a deleterious effect on emerging adult college students’ mental health. This study examines the factor structure of the Helicopter Parenting Behaviors measure, a recent scale developed to examine intrusive and supportive parenting behaviors, by using confirmatory factor ...
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