Family Stressors

Participation of Children with and without Disabilities in Social, Recreational and Leisure Activities

Background  One method of promoting children’s friendship development is through activity participation with peers. However, children with disabilities seem to engage in fewer of these activities, and when they do participate often do so primarily with adults.

Materials and Methods  This study compared activity participation and friendship in typically developing (TD) children (= 90), children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD; = 65), and children with an intellectual disability (= 30) between the ages of 5 and 17 years. Parents completed a questionnaire about their child’s participation in ...

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Children With Disabilities in the Context of Disaster: A Social Vulnerability Perspective

An estimated 200 million children worldwide experience various forms of disability. This critical review extrapolates from existing literature in 2 distinct areas of scholarship: one on individuals with disabilities in disaster, and the other on children in disaster. The extant literature suggests that various factors may contribute to the physical, psychological, and educational vulnerability of children with disabilities in disaster, including higher poverty rates, elevated risk exposure, greater vulnerability to traumatic loss or separation from caregivers, more strain on parents, ...

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Health Effects of Media on Children and Adolescents

Youth spend an average of >7 hours/day using media, and the vast majority of them have access to a bedroom television, computer, the Internet, a video-game console, and a cell phone. In this article we review the most recent research on the effects of media on the health and well-being of children and adolescents. Studies have shown that media can provide information about safe health practices and can foster social connectedness. However, recent evidence raises concerns about media’s effects on ...

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Impulsivity as a mechanism linking child abuse and neglect with substance use in adolescence and adulthood

Emerging developmental perspectives suggest that adverse rearing environments promote neurocognitive adaptations that heighten impulsivity and increase vulnerability to risky behavior. Although studies document links between harsh rearing environments and impulsive behavior on substance use, the developmental hypothesis that impulsivity acts as mechanism linking adverse rearing environments to downstream substance use remains to be investigated. The present study investigated the role of impulsivity in linking child abuse and neglect with adult substance use using data from (a) a longitudinal sample of ...

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The evolutionary basis of risky adolescent behavior: Implications for science, policy, and practice.

This article proposes an evolutionary model of risky behavior in adolescence and contrasts it with the prevailing developmental psychopathology model. The evolutionary model contends that understanding the evolutionary functions of adolescence is critical to explaining why adolescents engage in risky behavior and that successful intervention depends on working with, instead of against, adolescent goals and motivations. The current article articulates 5 key evolutionary insights into risky adolescent behavior: (a) The adolescent transition is an inflection point in development of social ...

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Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent–Child Relationships and Children’s Psychological Adjustment

Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3–9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent–child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in ...

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Global Perspectives on Resilience in Children and Youth

Global concerns about the consequences of disasters, political violence, disease, malnutrition, maltreatment, and other threats to human development and well-being have sparked a surge of international interest in resilience science. This article highlights progress and issues in research that aims to understand variations in human adaptation to adverse experiences. Two key questions are considered: Why is a new wave of global research on resilience important for developmental science? and Why is developmental science important for global resilience? The conclusion calls ...

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Child-Care Structure → Process → Outcome: Direct and Indirect Effects of Child-Care Quality on Young Children’s Development

With data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care, we used structural equation modeling to test paths from structural indicators of child-care quality, specifically caregiver training and child-staff ratio, through a process indicator to child outcomes. There were three main findings: (a) Quality of maternal caregiving was the strongest predictor of cognitive competence, as well as caregivers’ ratings of social competence; (b) quality of nonmaternal caregiving was associated with cognitive competence and caregivers’ ratings of social competence; and (c) ...

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Pathways linking marijuana use to substance use problems among emerging adults: A prospective analysis of young Black men

Marijuana use rates peak during emerging adulthood (ages 18 to 25years). Although marijuana use quantity reliably predicts substance-related problems, considerable individual differences characterize this association. The aims of the present study were to examine the influence of community disadvantage in amplifying the effects of marijuana use on downstream substance use problems, as well as the mediating influence of social disengagement in the path linking marijuana use frequency to related problems.

 

Pathways linking marijuana use to substance use problems among emerging ...

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Do internationally adopted children in the Netherlands use more medication than their non-adopted peers?

Empirical evidence has shown that international adoptees present physical growth delays, precocious puberty, behavioral problems, and mental health referrals more often than non-adoptees. We hypothesized that the higher prevalence of (mental) health problems in adoptees is accompanied by elevated consumption of prescription drugs, including antidepressants, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication, and medication for growth inhibition/stimulation. In an archival, population-based Dutch cohort study, data on medication use were available from the Health Care Insurance Board ...

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Risk of Suicide Attempt in Adopted and Nonadopted Offspring

We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide attempt. The odds for reported suicide attempt are elevated in individuals who are adopted relative to those who are not adopted. The relationship between adoption status and suicide attempt is partially mediated by factors known to be associated ...

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From Fathers to Sons: The Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting Behavior among African American Young Men

This study examined the intergenerational transmission of fathering among young, African American fathers in rural communities. A sample of 132 African American young men living in the rural South reported on the quality of their relationship with their biological and social fathers in the family of origin, their own involvement with their young children, and relational schemas of close, intimate relationships. Results of path analyses supported the hypothesized mediational model, such that a better relationship with one’s biological (but not ...

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