Inequality

Adolescent Behavioral, Emotional, and Cognitive Engagement Trajectories in School and Their Differential Relations to Educational Success

The current study used a multidimensional approach to examine developmental trajectories of three dimension of school engagement (school participation, sense of school belonging, and self-regulated learning) from grades 7 to 11 and their relationships to changes in adolescents’ academic outcomes over time. The sample includes 1,148 African American and European American adolescents (52% females, 56% black, 34% white, and 10% others). As expected, the downward trajectories of change in school participation, sense of belonging to school, and self-regulated learning differed ...

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Changing Trends in Asthma Prevalence Among Children

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma prevalence doubled from 1980 to 1995 and then increased more slowly from 2001 to 2010. During this second period, racial disparities increased. More recent trends remain to be described.

METHODS: We analyzed current asthma prevalence using 2001–2013 National Health Interview Survey data for children ages 0 to 17 years. Logistic regression with quadratic terms was used to test for nonlinear patterns in trends. Differences between demographic subgroups were further assessed with multivariate ...

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Black-White Disparity in Young Adults’ Disease Risk: An Investigation of Variation in the Vulnerability of Black Young Adults to Early and Later Adversity

Socioeconomic adversity in early years and young adulthood are risk factors for poor health in young adulthood. Population differences in exposure to stressful socioeconomic conditions partly explain the higher prevalence of disease among black young adults. Another plausible mechanism is that blacks are differentially vulnerable to socioeconomic adversity (differential vulnerability hypothesis), which has not been adequately investigated in previous research. The present study investigated variation in the vulnerability of black young adults leading to cardiometabolic (CM) disease risk.

 

Black-White Disparity ...

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Building a STEM Pathway: Xavier University of Louisiana’s Summer Science Academy

In Louisia, Xavier University provides a STEM summer Academy as a bridge program for persons of color between middle and high school. Underrepresented groups, such as Hispanics and Blacks, earn less than 15% of STEM bachelor’s degree, despite a large interest in these programs and degrees. The discrepancies in income levels may constitute this difference, causing an achievement gap. This program, as well as this report, offer state suggestions to narrow this gap.

 

 

Building a STEM Pathway: Xavier University of Louisiana’s ...

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Study: How students of different backgrounds use strategies to strengthen college applications

Years of research show that students from families of higher socioeconomic status are more likely to attend college—particularly more selective institutions—thanks to a variety of factors, including academic preparation, attendance at higher performing schools, and other social, cultural, and financial resources available to families with more means.

In addition to their traditional coursework, students often try to make their college applications more competitive through what the researchers call “college enhancement strategies,” including Advanced Placement (AP) exams, SAT preparation courses or materials, ...

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Report: The Mentoring Effect

Based off a survey regarding young persons and mentoring, there is not only a mentoring gap in America but also a mentoring need. It is estimated that more than one in three youths, which is roughly 16 million, have never had an adult mentor. This estimate includes roughly nine million at-risk youths, who are therefore less likely to graduate high school, go to college, and lead healthy and productive lives. Those that have been found to have a mentor provides ...

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Two Strikes Race and the Disciplining of Young Students

There are large racial disparities in school discipline in the United States, which, for Black students, not only contribute to school failure but also can lay a path toward incarceration. Although the disparities have been well documented, the psychological mechanisms underlying them are unclear. In two experiments, we tested the hypothesis that such disparities are, in part, driven by racial stereotypes that can lead teachers to escalate their negative responses to Black students over the course of multiple interpersonal (e.g., ...

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