Disabilities/Disorders

How Family Structures and Processes Interrelate: The Case of Adolescent Mental Health and Academic Success in Military Families

The transitional nature of military life positions the family to serve as the primary and most stable influence for adolescents in military families. These military-related transitions and stressors may also put youth at risk for depression and academic challenges. This study examines the relative impact of family structure (family composition at a given time point) and family processes (interpersonal interactions developed over time) on important adolescent outcomes (depressive symptoms and academic performance) for a sample of military youth (N = ...

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Parental support buffers the association of depressive symptoms with cortisol and C-reactive protein during adolescence

Social experiences can affect the relationship between depression and physical health. The current study examined how social support from parents and friends may moderate the association of depressive symptoms with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and C-reactive protein among adolescents (N = 316, Mage = 16.40, SD = .74; 57% female) from diverse ethnic backgrounds (23.1% Asian, 29.1% European, 41.8% Latino, and 6.0% other backgrounds). Results indicated that parent support, but not friend support, moderated the link between depressive symptoms and both total daily cortisol output (a ...

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Helicopter Parenting and Emerging Adult Self-Efficacy: Implications for Mental and Physical Health

Abstract
Helicopter parenting has become an increasing concern among practitioners, college administrators, and professors. Further, some research has indicated that this form of parenting may have a deleterious effect on emerging adult college students’ mental health. This study examines the factor structure of the Helicopter Parenting Behaviors measure, a recent scale developed to examine intrusive and supportive parenting behaviors, by using confirmatory factor ...
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Speech and Language Disorders in Children: Implications for the Social Security Administration’s Supplemental Security Income Program

Over the past several decades, the number of children receiving SSI has risen overall, and the number receiving SSI on the basis of speech and language disorders has increased as well. The Social Security Administration requested that the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convene a committee to identify trends in the prevalence of speech and language disorders among U.S. children and to compare those trends to changes observed in the population of children who receive SSI. The resulting ...

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Study: Positive Reinforcement Plays Key Role in Cognitive Task Performance in ADHD Kids

A little recognition for a job well done means a lot to children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) – more so than it would for typically developing kids.

That praise, or other possible reward, improves the performance of children with ADHD on certain cognitive tasks, but until a recent study led by researchers from the University at Buffalo, it wasn’t clear if that result was due to heightened motivation inspired by positive reinforcement or because those with ADHD simply had greater ...

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Bullying of Disabled and Non-Disabled High School Students

Students with disabilities are considered to be at greater risk for bullying than students without disabilities. The WestEd Justice & Prevention Research Center collaborated with staff across WestEd to analyze data from Maine’s statewide Integrated Youth Survey to examine risk rates for these student populations.

As expected, students with disabilities had substantially higher rates of bullying victimization compared to students without disabilities. WestEd researchers Sarah Guckenburg, Susan Hayes, Anthony Petrosino, and Thomas Hanson, and consultant Alexis Stern ...

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New Study Highlights Anxiety And Depression Trends In Children With Epilepsy

A new population-based study has offered insights into the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression in school-aged children with active epilepsy.

Researchers at a number of UK centres allied with the University of Gothenburg in Sweden saw 69 children with active epilepsy screened using the parental reporting version of the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale, while 48 utilised the self-reporting version.

 

New Study Highlights Anxiety And Depression Trends In Children With Epilepsy

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UNDERSTANDING WHY ADOPTEES ARE AT HIGHER RISK FOR SUICIDE

Most people view adoption as a happy, even blessed, event. A child finds a new family: nothing but joy, right? Adoption can be happy, a blessing, joyful. For some adoptees, though, adoption is complex, and can be filled with as much loss as love.

According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, adoptees are four times more likely to attempt suicide than non-adoptees. It’shere in Pediatrics. Even more startling is that the mean age of the 1000 participants was about 14. ...

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Risk of Suicide Attempt in Adopted and Nonadopted Offspring

We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide attempt.

 

Risk of Suicide Attempt in Adopted and Nonadopted Offspring

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Adoption as a Risk Factor for Attempted Suicide During Adolescence

Depression, impulsivity, and aggression during adolescence have been associated with both adoption and suicidal behavior. Studies of adopted adults suggest that impulsivity, even more than depression, may be an inherited factor that mediates suicidal behavior. However, the association between adoption and adolescent suicide attempts and the mechanisms that might explain it remain unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the following: 1) whether suicide attempts are more common among adolescents who live with adoptive parents rather than biological ...

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Second-Generation Antipsychotic Drug Use Among Medicaid-Enrolled Children: Quality-of-Care Concerns

Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are a class of drugs used to treat psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression. SGAs are widely used to treat children enrolled in Medicaid who have mental health conditions. However, SGAs can have serious side effects and little clinical research has been conducted on the safety of treating children with these drugs. Consequently, children’s treatment with SGAs needs careful management and monitoring. This evaluation examines the quality of care provided to children receiving ...

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Mental Disorders and Disabilities Among Low-Income Children

Since 1975, the Social Security Administration (SSA) has paid benefits to poor children with disabilities through the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. In 2013, approximately 1.3 million children received SSI disability benefits, roughly half of whom qualified primarily due to a mental disorder. In response to considerable and recurring interest in the growth and sustainability of the SSI program for children, SSA commissioned the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to identify trends in the prevalence of mental disorders ...

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