ADHD

Adolescent impulsivity phenotypes characterized by distinct brain networks

The impulsive behavior that is often characteristic of adolescence may reflect underlying neurodevelopmental processes. Moreover, impulsivity is a multi-dimensional construct, and it is plausible that distinct brain networks contribute to its different cognitive, clinical and behavioral aspects. As these networks have not yet been described, we identified distinct cortical and subcortical networks underlying successful inhibitions and inhibition failures in a large sample (n = 1,896) of 14-year-old adolescents. Different networks were associated with drug use (n = 1,593) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ...

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Adolescent Substance Use in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a Function of Childhood ADHD, Random Assignment to Childhood Treatments, and Subsequent Medication

Objective

To determine long-term effects on substance use and substance use disorder (SUD), up to 8 years after childhood enrollment, of the randomly assigned 14-month treatments in the multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA; n = 436); to test whether medication at follow-up, cumulative psychostimulant treatment over time, or both relate to substance use/SUD; and to compare substance use/SUD in the ADHD sample to the non-ADHD childhood classmate comparison group (n = 261).

Method

Mixed-effects ...

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Inclusion of Children with Disabilities: Teachers’ Attitudes and Requirements for Environmental Accommodations

Teachers in general education are expected to cope with students with diverse needs. They might not always be ready or sufficiently supported to meet these challenges. The current study aims at identifying child, teacher and environmental barriers to inclusion. Specifically it addresses the importance of preschool teachers’ attitudes as the human environment factor that may facilitate inclusion of children with disability, and teachers’ major concerns about environmental accommodations that inclusion implies. The study assessed how teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion of ...

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Do internationally adopted children in the Netherlands use more medication than their non-adopted peers?

Empirical evidence has shown that international adoptees present physical growth delays, precocious puberty, behavioral problems, and mental health referrals more often than non-adoptees. We hypothesized that the higher prevalence of (mental) health problems in adoptees is accompanied by elevated consumption of prescription drugs, including antidepressants, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication, and medication for growth inhibition/stimulation. In an archival, population-based Dutch cohort study, data on medication use were available from the Health Care Insurance Board ...

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Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood

We report the dynamic anatomical sequence of human cortical gray matter development between the age of 4–21 years using quantitative four-dimensional maps and time-lapse sequences. Thirteen healthy children for whom anatomic brain MRI scans were obtained every 2 years, for 8–10 years, were studied. By using models of the cortical surface and sulcal landmarks and a statistical model for gray matter density, human cortical development could be visualized across the age range in a spatiotemporally detailed time-lapse sequence. The resulting ...

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Study: Positive Reinforcement Plays Key Role in Cognitive Task Performance in ADHD Kids

A little recognition for a job well done means a lot to children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) – more so than it would for typically developing kids.

That praise, or other possible reward, improves the performance of children with ADHD on certain cognitive tasks, but until a recent study led by researchers from the University at Buffalo, it wasn’t clear if that result was due to heightened motivation inspired by positive reinforcement or because those with ADHD simply had greater ...

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Second-Generation Antipsychotic Drug Use Among Medicaid-Enrolled Children: Quality-of-Care Concerns

Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are a class of drugs used to treat psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression. SGAs are widely used to treat children enrolled in Medicaid who have mental health conditions. However, SGAs can have serious side effects and little clinical research has been conducted on the safety of treating children with these drugs. Consequently, children’s treatment with SGAs needs careful management and monitoring. This evaluation examines the quality of care provided to children receiving ...

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Some Stats for Your Back-to-School

U.S. News reports some different statistics, along with charts and graphs, of issues concerning youth in America.

 

Some Stats for Your Back-to-School

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Benefits of Sensory Motor Integration Therapy for Autism

Sensory integration therapy is one considered helpful as part of a multidisciplinary approach to autism spectrum disorders, some types of learning disabilities, and sensory hypersensitivity in general. This article gives an overview of the philosophy behind sensory integration therapy.

 

Benefits of Sensory Motor Integration Therapy for Autism

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Time Spent in Sleep | Child Trends

The role of sleep in children’s development is incompletely understood. However, perceived inadequate or poor-quality sleep is associated with a number of emotional, behavioral, and health problems.[1]

Remarkably, although the physiological requirement for sleep is undisputed, there is little consensus on how much sleep children ...

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We are overmedicating America’s poorest kids – The Washington Post

In America, poverty is a disease that comes with a host of symptoms. If you’re poor, you’re more likely to suffer from diabetes or asthma. You’re also, apparently, more likely to be diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and dosed with a stimulant, even if you’re only 2 years old.

A recent study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that thousands of children between the ages of 2 and 3 are being prescribed stimulants like Ritalin or Adderall for ...

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