Disabilities/Disorders

Parenting and Salience Network Connectivity Among African Americans: A Protective Pathway for Health-Risk Behaviors

Supportive parenting during childhood has been associated with many positive developmental outcomes for offspring in adulthood, including fewer health-risk behaviors. Little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying these associations. The present study followed rural African Americans (n = 91, 52% female) from late childhood (ages 11-13) to emerging adulthood (age 25). Parent-child communication was assessed at ages 11, 12, and 13. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used at age 25 to measure resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the ...

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Parenting stress and child behavior problems within families of children with developmental disabilities: Transactional relations across 15 years

Parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD) are at increased risk of experiencing psychological stress compared to other parents. Children’s high levels of internalizing and externalizing problems have been found to contribute to this elevated level of stress. Few studies have considered the reverse direction of effects, however, in families where a child has a DD. The present study investigated transactional relations between child behavior problems and maternal stress within 176 families raising a child with early diagnosed DD. There ...

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A heavy burden on young minds: the global burden of mental and substance use disorders in children and youth

Mental and substance use disorders are common and often persistent, with many emerging in early life. Compared to adult mental and substance use disorders, the global burden attributable to these disorders in children and youth has received relatively little attention.

Data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 was used to investigate the burden of mental and substance disorders in children and youth aged 0–24 years. Burden was estimated in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), derived from the sum ...

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Adverse Childhood Experiences and Mental Health, Chronic Medical Conditions, and Development in Young Children

This cross-sectional study used a nationally representative sample of children investigated by child welfare (National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II) from 2008 to 2009. Our analysis included caregiver interviews and caseworker reports about children aged 18 to 71 months who were not in out-of-home care (n = 912). We examined the associations between ACEs and mental health (measured by the Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL]), reported chronic medical conditions, and social development (measured by the Vineland Socialization Scale) in ...

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Adolescent impulsivity phenotypes characterized by distinct brain networks

The impulsive behavior that is often characteristic of adolescence may reflect underlying neurodevelopmental processes. Moreover, impulsivity is a multi-dimensional construct, and it is plausible that distinct brain networks contribute to its different cognitive, clinical and behavioral aspects. As these networks have not yet been described, we identified distinct cortical and subcortical networks underlying successful inhibitions and inhibition failures in a large sample (n = 1,896) of 14-year-old adolescents. Different networks were associated with drug use (n = 1,593) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ...

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Adolescent Stress–Induced Epigenetic Control of Dopaminergic Neurons via Glucocorticoids

Environmental stressors during childhood and adolescence influence postnatal brain maturation and human behavioral patterns in adulthood. Accordingly, excess stressors result in adult-onset neuropsychiatric disorders. We describe an underlying mechanism in which glucocorticoids link adolescent stressors to epigenetic controls in neurons. In a mouse model of this phenomenon, a mild isolation stress affects the mesocortical projection of dopaminergic neurons in which DNA hypermethylation of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene is elicited, but only when combined with a relevant genetic risk for neuropsychiatric ...

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Impulsivity-related personality traits and adolescent alcohol use: A meta-analytic review

Heightened impulsivity has been identified as a risk marker for excessive and problematic alcohol use, particularly during adolescence when impulsive behaviour is elevated and alcohol use is often initiated. Recent advances in personality theory indicate that impulsivity comprises several discrete traits which may influence alcohol use through different pathways. This review used meta-analysis to assess the degree to which the impulsivity-related traits of lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking, negative urgency, positive urgency, and reward sensitivity are associated ...

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Adolescent Substance Use in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a Function of Childhood ADHD, Random Assignment to Childhood Treatments, and Subsequent Medication

Objective

To determine long-term effects on substance use and substance use disorder (SUD), up to 8 years after childhood enrollment, of the randomly assigned 14-month treatments in the multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA; n = 436); to test whether medication at follow-up, cumulative psychostimulant treatment over time, or both relate to substance use/SUD; and to compare substance use/SUD in the ADHD sample to the non-ADHD childhood classmate comparison group (n = 261).

Method

Mixed-effects ...

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Participation of Children with and without Disabilities in Social, Recreational and Leisure Activities

Background  One method of promoting children’s friendship development is through activity participation with peers. However, children with disabilities seem to engage in fewer of these activities, and when they do participate often do so primarily with adults.

Materials and Methods  This study compared activity participation and friendship in typically developing (TD) children (= 90), children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD; = 65), and children with an intellectual disability (= 30) between the ages of 5 and 17 years. Parents completed a questionnaire about their child’s participation in ...

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Inclusion for Young Children With Disabilities

Issues affecting inclusion of young children with disabilities over the last 25 years are discussed. A brief history of early childhood inclusion is followed by a discussion of definition, terminology, and models for inclusive services. A summary of synthesis points derived from the research literature focuses on critical outcomes for children with disabilities, the role of specialized instruction, collaboration among professionals, necessary organizational supports, and benefits for typically developing children. Two recent directions affecting the implementation of inclusion, assessment of ...

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Inclusion of Children with Disabilities: Teachers’ Attitudes and Requirements for Environmental Accommodations

Teachers in general education are expected to cope with students with diverse needs. They might not always be ready or sufficiently supported to meet these challenges. The current study aims at identifying child, teacher and environmental barriers to inclusion. Specifically it addresses the importance of preschool teachers’ attitudes as the human environment factor that may facilitate inclusion of children with disability, and teachers’ major concerns about environmental accommodations that inclusion implies. The study assessed how teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion of ...

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Children With Disabilities in the Context of Disaster: A Social Vulnerability Perspective

An estimated 200 million children worldwide experience various forms of disability. This critical review extrapolates from existing literature in 2 distinct areas of scholarship: one on individuals with disabilities in disaster, and the other on children in disaster. The extant literature suggests that various factors may contribute to the physical, psychological, and educational vulnerability of children with disabilities in disaster, including higher poverty rates, elevated risk exposure, greater vulnerability to traumatic loss or separation from caregivers, more strain on parents, ...

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