Peer Influence

Paths to Positive Development: a Model of Outcomes in the New Zealand Youth Transitions Study

This study examined predictors of positive developmental outcomes, including: life satisfaction; optimism; educational achievement; civic engagement; and positive peer influence; in a sample of young people comprised of a study group (n = 593) facing significant challenges and a comparison group (n = 778) who were progressing more normatively. The study modelled the demographic, risk, and resource predictors of positive outcomes across both groups, and compared the fit of the model across groups using integrative data analysis techniques. Results suggested ...

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Decision-making in the adolescent brain

Adolescence is characterized by making risky decisions. Early lesion and neuroimaging studies in adults pointed to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and related structures as having a key role in decision-making. More recent studies have fractionated decision-making processes into its various components, including the representation of value, response selection (including inter-temporal choice and cognitive control), associative learning, and affective and social aspects. These different aspects of decision-making have been the focus of investigation in recent studies of the adolescent brain. Evidence ...

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The Teenage Brain: Peer Influences on Adolescent Decision Making

Research efforts to account for elevated risk behavior among adolescents have arrived at an exciting new stage. Moving beyond laboratory studies of age differences in risk perception and reasoning, new approaches have shifted their focus to the influence of social and emotional factors on adolescent decision making. We review recent research suggesting that adolescent risk-taking propensity derives in part from a maturational gap between early adolescent remodeling of the brain’s socioemotional reward system and a gradual, prolonged strengthening of the ...

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NetGirls: The Internet, Facebook, and body image concern in adolescent girls

Objective

The primary aim of the study was to examine the relationship between Internet exposure and body image concern in adolescent girls, with a particular focus on the social networking site of Facebook.

Method

A sample of 1,087 girls in the first two years (Years 8 and 9) of high school (aged 13–15 years) completed questionnaire measures of Internet consumption and body image concerns.

Results

The overwhelming majority of girls (95.9%) had access to the Internet ...

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Patterns of adolescent bullying behaviors: Physical, verbal, exclusion, rumor, and cyber

Patterns of engagement in cyber bullying and four types of traditional bullying were examined using latent class analysis (LCA). Demographic differences and externalizing problems were evaluated across latent class membership. Data were obtained from the 2005–2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Survey and the analytic sample included 7,508 U.S. adolescents in grades 6 through 10. LCA models were tested on physical bullying, verbal bullying, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber bullying behaviors. Three latent classes were identified for each gender: All-Types ...

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Participation of Children with and without Disabilities in Social, Recreational and Leisure Activities

Background  One method of promoting children’s friendship development is through activity participation with peers. However, children with disabilities seem to engage in fewer of these activities, and when they do participate often do so primarily with adults.

Materials and Methods  This study compared activity participation and friendship in typically developing (TD) children (= 90), children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD; = 65), and children with an intellectual disability (= 30) between the ages of 5 and 17 years. Parents completed a questionnaire about their child’s participation in ...

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Shared cultural knowledge: Effects of music on young children’s social preferences.

Adults use cultural markers to discern the structure of the social landscape. Such markers may also influence the social preferences of young children, who tend to conform to their own group and prefer others who do so. However, the forces that propel these preferences are unknown. Here, we use social preferences based on music to investigate these forces in four- and five-year-old children. First, we establish that children prefer other children whose favorite songs are familiar to them. Then we ...

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Children’s Gender-Typed Activity Choices Across Preschool Social Contexts

Variability in children’s gender-typed activity preferences was examined across several preschool social contexts–solitary play, interactions with female peers, male peers, and both, and interactions with teachers. Participants were preschool children (N = 264; 49 % girls, M age = 52 months, range 37–60) attending Head Start classes in the Southwest United States. Seventy-three percent were Mexican/Mexican-American, and 82 % of families earned less than $30,000 per year. Children’s preferences for gender-typed activities varied as a function of their own gender and the identity ...

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Stories from the Front Lines of Student Success: The Implementation and Progress of Near Peer Mentoring Programs in Alaska and Idaho

This brief provides an overview of the implementation and impact of near peer mentoring programs in Alaska and Idaho from the standpoint of both existing research and the near peers themselves. In addition to offering strategies and promising practices that have helped foster a college-going culture in both states, the brief provides testimonials from mentors and the students they have served – students who might otherwise never considered college as an option without the extra support of a near peer ...

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Report: The Mentoring Effect

Based off a survey regarding young persons and mentoring, there is not only a mentoring gap in America but also a mentoring need. It is estimated that more than one in three youths, which is roughly 16 million, have never had an adult mentor. This estimate includes roughly nine million at-risk youths, who are therefore less likely to graduate high school, go to college, and lead healthy and productive lives. Those that have been found to have a mentor provides ...

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Americans’ Views on Mobile Etiquette

This Pew Research Center report explores newly released survey findings about Americans’ views about the appropriateness of cellphone use in public places and in social gatherings and the way those views sometimes conflict with their own behaviors.

The results are based on a nationally representative survey of 3,217 adults on Pew Research Center’s American Trends Panel, 3,042 of whom are cellphone users.

 

Americans’ Views on Mobile Etiquette

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