Mental Operations

Foundations of Financial Well‐Being: Insights into the Role of Executive Function, Financial Socialization, and Experience‐Based Learning in Childhood and Youth

During childhood and youth we build the foundations for financial well‐being later in life, acquiring the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and personality traits that enable us to manage our finances as adults. This article reviews literature from consumer science, developmental psychology, and allied fields to gain insight into moments during youthful development when interventions are likely to have greatest impact. We find promising avenues for influence during each developmental life stage. Many present truly novel approaches to financial education—such as focusing ...

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The Effects of Technology on Engagement and Retention Among Upper Elementary Montessori Students.

The purpose of this paper is to describe the findings of a study on the effects of
integrating technology into lessons in a Montessori upper elementary classroom in
Raleigh, North Carolina. The research looked at both the student engagement and the
retention of information when technology was included in Montessori lessons. This study
spanned a six-week period and was conducted with 25 fourth through sixth grade
students. Data collection included a pre-lesson questionnaire, a teacher engagement
report form, a teacher ...

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Decision-making in the adolescent brain

Adolescence is characterized by making risky decisions. Early lesion and neuroimaging studies in adults pointed to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and related structures as having a key role in decision-making. More recent studies have fractionated decision-making processes into its various components, including the representation of value, response selection (including inter-temporal choice and cognitive control), associative learning, and affective and social aspects. These different aspects of decision-making have been the focus of investigation in recent studies of the adolescent brain. Evidence ...

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Impulsivity as a mechanism linking child abuse and neglect with substance use in adolescence and adulthood

Emerging developmental perspectives suggest that adverse rearing environments promote neurocognitive adaptations that heighten impulsivity and increase vulnerability to risky behavior. Although studies document links between harsh rearing environments and impulsive behavior on substance use, the developmental hypothesis that impulsivity acts as mechanism linking adverse rearing environments to downstream substance use remains to be investigated. The present study investigated the role of impulsivity in linking child abuse and neglect with adult substance use using data from (a) a longitudinal sample of ...

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Less-structured time in children’s daily lives predicts self-directed executive functioning

Executive functions (EFs) in childhood predict important life outcomes. Thus, there is great interest in attempts to improve EFs early in life. Many interventions are led by trained adults, including structured training activities in the lab, and less-structured activities implemented in schools. Such programs have yielded gains in children’s externally-driven executive functioning, where they are instructed on what goal-directed actions to carry out and when. However, it is less clear how children’s experiences relate to their development of self-directed executive ...

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Arts and Cognition Monograph: Effects of Music Instruction

Our research examined the relationship between cognitive systems that underlie music and mathematical abilities. Specifically, we undertook studies to determine whether, when children or adolescents produce music—comparing and operating on melodies, harmonies, and rhythms—they activate brain systems that also enable them to compare and operate on representations of number and geometry.

Arts and Cognition Monograph: Effects of Music Instruction

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The Teen Brain

NPR writer Richard Knox published an article on the teenage brain to help answer the question many parents ask their teenagers, “What were you thinking?” Pediatric Neurologist Frances Jensen learned that the question is not what teens think but rather how. The teenage brain itself is not fully developed yet, and a crucial part of the brain, the frontal lobes, are not fully connected. Jensen says, “It’s the part of the brain that says: ‘Is this a good idea? What is ...

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Supporting Autonomy in the Classroom: Ways Teachers Encourage Student Decision Making and Ownership

In addition to classroom activities, teachers provide personal and instructional supports meant to facilitate the developing sense of student autonomy. In this article, we offer a way of thinking about autonomy-supportive practices that suggests that such practices can be distinguished at a featural level and that different practices may in fact have different outcomes in terms of student classroom behavior. Specifically, we propose that autonomy support can be manifested in the classroom in at least 3 distinct ways: organizational autonomy ...

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International research on the effectiveness of widening participation

HEFCE commissioned CFE and Edge Hill University to produce a report on effective approaches to widening participation in six case study countries: the Netherlands, the US, Australia, South Africa, Norway and Ireland. The review was commissioned to inform the national strategy for access and student success which HEFCE and the Office for Fair Access are jointly developing.

The aims of the research are:

  • to critically examine the evidence for the impact and effectiveness of activity and policies specifically focused on widening participation and ...
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This is your child’s brain on reading

When parents read to their children the difference shows in children’s behavior and academic performance. And according to a new study, the difference also shows in their brain activity.

Researchers looked at children ages 3 to 5 who underwent brain scans called functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while listening to a pre-recorded story. The parents answered questions about how much they read to, and communicated with, their children.

 

This is your child’s brain on reading

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How Stories Change the Brain

Why are we so attracted to stories? My lab has spent the last several years seeking to understand why stories can move us to tears, change our attitudes, opinions and behaviors, and even inspire us—and how stories change our brains, often for the better. Here’s what we’ve learned.

 

How Stories Change the Brain

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Child Trends Special Report: Home Front Alert, The Risks Facing Young Children in Military Families – YouTube

Today, nearly half of our active-duty military members are parents, and their absence from home is always deeply felt by their families. When a service member returns from deployment, it may seem like the hardest part is over. However, a new Child Trends study shows that after the deep emotional toll deployment takes on a family, the reunion of a deployed parent can be accompanied with a brand new set of risks and ...

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