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Insulin Resistance and the IGF-I-Cortical Bone Relationship in Children Ages 9-13 Years

IGF-I is a pivotal hormone in pediatric musculoskeletal development. Though recent data suggest that the role of IGF-I in total body lean mass and total body bone mass accrual may be compromised in children with insulin resistance, cortical bone geometric outcomes have not been studied in this context. Therefore, we explored the influence of insulin resistance on the relationship between IGF-I and cortical bone in children. A secondary aim was to examine the influence of insulin resistance on the lean ...

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Do internationally adopted children in the Netherlands use more medication than their non-adopted peers?

Empirical evidence has shown that international adoptees present physical growth delays, precocious puberty, behavioral problems, and mental health referrals more often than non-adoptees. We hypothesized that the higher prevalence of (mental) health problems in adoptees is accompanied by elevated consumption of prescription drugs, including antidepressants, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication, and medication for growth inhibition/stimulation. In an archival, population-based Dutch cohort study, data on medication use were available from the Health Care Insurance Board ...

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Risk of Suicide Attempt in Adopted and Nonadopted Offspring

We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide attempt. The odds for reported suicide attempt are elevated in individuals who are adopted relative to those who are not adopted. The relationship between adoption status and suicide attempt is partially mediated by factors known to be associated ...

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Active music classes in infancy enhance musical, communicative and social development.

Previous studies suggest that musical training in children can positively affect various aspects of development. However, it remains unknown as to how early in development musical experience can have an effect, the nature of any such effects, and whether different types of music experience affect development differently. We found that random assignment to 6 months of active participatory musical experience beginning at 6 months of age accelerates acquisition of culture-specific knowledge of Western tonality in comparison to a similar amount ...

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Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood

We report the dynamic anatomical sequence of human cortical gray matter development between the age of 4–21 years using quantitative four-dimensional maps and time-lapse sequences. Thirteen healthy children for whom anatomic brain MRI scans were obtained every 2 years, for 8–10 years, were studied. By using models of the cortical surface and sulcal landmarks and a statistical model for gray matter density, human cortical development could be visualized across the age range in a spatiotemporally detailed time-lapse sequence. The resulting ...

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Sex Differences in Brain Maturation during Childhood and Adolescence

Brain development during childhood and adolescence is characterized by both progressive myelination and regressive pruning processes. However, sex differences in brain maturation remain poorly understood. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine the relationships between age and sex with cerebral gray and white matter volumes and corpus callosal areas in 118 healthy children and adolescents (61 males and 57 females), aged 6–17 years. Gender groups were similar on measures of age, handedness, socioeconomic status and Full Scale IQ. Significant age-related ...

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From Fathers to Sons: The Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting Behavior among African American Young Men

This study examined the intergenerational transmission of fathering among young, African American fathers in rural communities. A sample of 132 African American young men living in the rural South reported on the quality of their relationship with their biological and social fathers in the family of origin, their own involvement with their young children, and relational schemas of close, intimate relationships. Results of path analyses supported the hypothesized mediational model, such that a better relationship with one’s biological (but not ...

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Active music classes in infancy enhance musical, communicative and social development

Previous studies suggest that musical training in children can positively affect various aspects of development. However, it remains unknown as to how early in development musical experience can have an effect, the nature of any such effects, and whether different types of music experience affect development differently. We found that random assignment to 6 months of active participatory musical experience beginning at 6 months of age accelerates acquisition of culture-specific knowledge of Western tonality in comparison to a similar amount ...

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Explaining the Association between Early Adversity and Young Adults’ Diabetes Outcomes: Physiological, Psychological, and Behavioral Mechanisms

Previous studies have documented that early adversity increases young adults’ risk for diabetes resulting in morbidity and comorbidity with adverse health conditions. However, less is known about how inter-related physiological (e.g., body mass index [BMI]), psychological (e.g., depressive symptoms), and behavioral mechanisms (e.g., unhealthy eating and sedentary behavior) link early adversity to young adults’ diabetes outcomes, although these mechanisms appear to stem from early stressful experiences. The current study tested the patterning of these longitudinal pathways leading to young adults’ ...

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Mindfulness in Parenting and Coparenting

Mindfulness has been established as a critical psychosocial variable for the well-being of individuals; however, less is understood regarding the role of mindfulness within the family context of parents, coparents, and children. This study tested a model examining the process by which parent dispositional mindfulness relates to parenting and coparenting relationship quality through mindful parenting and coparenting. Participants were 485 parents (59.2 % mothers) from three community samples of families with youth across three developmental stages: young childhood (3–7 years; Continue Reading →

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Mindful Parenting and Parents’ Emotion Expression: Effects on Adolescent Risk Behaviors

Mindful parenting is associated with greater adjustment and fewer behavior problems in children and adolescents. However, the mechanisms by which mindful parenting functions to mitigate risk in adolescence are not well understood. This study investigated parent emotional expression as a potential mechanism in the relationship between low mindful parenting and adolescent risk behaviors. A sample of 157 12–14-year-old adolescents (49 % female) and their primary caregivers (99 % female) participated in an emotionally arousing conflict interaction. Parents reported on their ...

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Genetic Moderation of Transactional Relations Between Parenting Practices and Child Self-Regulation

The present study addressed the ways in which parent and child dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) genotypes jointly moderate the transactional relations between parenting practices and child self-regulation. African American children ( = 309) and their parents provided longitudinal data spanning child ages 11 to 15 years and a saliva sample from which variation at DRD4 was genotyped. Based on the differential susceptibility perspective, this study examined moderation effects of DRD4 status on (a) the extent to which parenting practices affect ...

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