Skype Me! Socially Contingent Interactions Help Toddlers Learn Language

Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This study focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24–30 months (N = 36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live interaction training, socially contingent video training over video chat, and noncontingent video training (yoked video). ...

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Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent–Child Relationships and Children’s Psychological Adjustment

Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3–9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent–child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay ...

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Global Perspectives on Resilience in Children and Youth

Global concerns about the consequences of disasters, political violence, disease, malnutrition, maltreatment, and other threats to human development and well-being have sparked a surge of international interest in resilience science. This article highlights progress and issues in research that aims to understand variations in human adaptation to adverse experiences. Two key questions are considered: Why is a new wave of global research on resilience important ...

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Prevalence and risk of violence against children with disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

Globally, at least 93 million children have moderate or severe disability. Children with disabilities are thought to have a substantially greater risk of being victims of violence than are their non-disabled peers. Establishment of reliable estimates of the scale of the problem is an essential first step in the development of effective prevention programmes. We therefore undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesise evidence ...

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Evidence for General and Domain-Specific Elements of Teacher–Child Interactions: Associations With Preschool Children’s Development

This study evaluates a model for considering domain-general and domain-specific associations between teacher–child interactions and children’s development, using a bifactor analytic strategy. Among a sample of 325 early childhood classrooms there was evidence for both general elements of teacher–child interaction (responsive teaching) and domain-specific elements related to positive management and routines and cognitive facilitation. Among a diverse population of 4-year-old children (= 1,407) responsive teaching was ...

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Child-Care Structure → Process → Outcome: Direct and Indirect Effects of Child-Care Quality on Young Children’s Development

With data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care, we used structural equation modeling to test paths from structural indicators of child-care quality, specifically caregiver training and child-staff ratio, through a process indicator to child outcomes. There were three main findings: (a) Quality of maternal caregiving was the strongest predictor of cognitive competence, as well as caregivers’ ratings of social competence; (b) quality of ...

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The influence of substance use on depressive symptoms among young adult black men: The sensitizing effect of early adversity: Depressive Symptoms and Substance Use in Black Men

Background and objectives: Depressive symptoms have been identified as an important consequence of substance use. Both heavy drinking and marijuana use have acute and short-term effects on systems that regulate emotion, increasing the potential for substance use to induce problems with negative affect and irritability. We investigated the effects of alcohol and marijuana use on depressive symptoms among a sample of young Black men. We ...

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Pathways linking marijuana use to substance use problems among emerging adults: A prospective analysis of young Black men

Marijuana use rates peak during emerging adulthood (ages 18 to 25years). Although marijuana use quantity reliably predicts substance-related problems, considerable individual differences characterize this association. The aims of the present study were to examine the influence of community disadvantage in amplifying the effects of marijuana use on downstream substance use problems, as well as the mediating influence of social disengagement in the path linking marijuana ...

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Insulin Resistance and the IGF-I-Cortical Bone Relationship in Children Ages 9-13 Years

IGF-I is a pivotal hormone in pediatric musculoskeletal development. Though recent data suggest that the role of IGF-I in total body lean mass and total body bone mass accrual may be compromised in children with insulin resistance, cortical bone geometric outcomes have not been studied in this context. Therefore, we explored the influence of insulin resistance on the relationship between IGF-I and cortical bone in ...

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Do internationally adopted children in the Netherlands use more medication than their non-adopted peers?

Empirical evidence has shown that international adoptees present physical growth delays, precocious puberty, behavioral problems, and mental health referrals more often than non-adoptees. We hypothesized that the higher prevalence of (mental) health problems in adoptees is accompanied by elevated consumption of prescription drugs, including antidepressants, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication, and medication for growth inhibition/stimulation. In an archival, population-based ...

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Risk of Suicide Attempt in Adopted and Nonadopted Offspring

We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide attempt. The odds for reported suicide attempt are elevated in individuals who are adopted relative to those who are not adopted. The relationship ...

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Snapshot: Civil Citations

When youth get in trouble with the law, it’s important to take a level-headed approach that helps them become contributing members of society while ensuring community safety. Unfortunately, our current juvenile justice system is like an exceptionally difficult maze, with too many paths in and too few ways out. But just entering the maze can have devastating consequences for society at large and for the ...

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